By the eighth century West Africans had learned to make ornaments and other objects by the lost-wax technique.
The method involves sculpting and building a form in wax for each individual bead which is covered with successive layers of clay to make a mold. Molten metal is poured in through a hole left for the purpose, melting the wax so it runs out that or another hole. After the metal sets, the mold is broken and the piece removed, filed smooth, cleaned and polished.
These beads, new and old, were made in Ghana, Africa.